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A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

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Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Benzene and its derivatives.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Nucleus

The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.