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A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

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Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Acid

A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among elements and compounds as they undergo chemical changes.

Explosive limits

The range of concentrations over which a flammable vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode if a source of ignitions is provided.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.