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A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

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Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Salt Bridge

A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

Faraday

One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on 6.022 x 1023 electrons, or 96,487.301 coulombs.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Polar Bond

Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical distribution of electron density.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.