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A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

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Helium

Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Coordinate Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

Dispersing Medium

The solvent-like phase in a colloid.

Differential Thermometer

A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very small changes in temperature.

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Molecular Formula

Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present in a molecule of a molecular substance.

Halogens

Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.