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A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

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Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Voltage

Potential difference between two electrodes, a measure of the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.

Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Peroxide

A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22

K Capture

Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Catalyst

A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed itself in the reaction.
A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at which a reaction occurs.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Helium

Discovered : by Sir William Ramsay in London, and independently by P.T. Cleve and N.A. Langlet in Uppsala, Sweden in 1895.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘helios’,sun.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that is totally unreactive. It is extracted from natural gas wells, some of which contain gas that is 7% helium. It is used in deep sea diving for balloons and, as liquid helium, for low temperature research. The Earth’s atmosphere contains 5 parts per million by volume, totalling 400 million tons, but it is not worth extracting it from this source at present.
Atomic No:2 MAss No:4

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Salicylate

A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.