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The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

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Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Mother Nuclide

Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Flammable

A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash point below 37.8°C (100°F).

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Cohesive Forces

All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid.