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A rare metallic element found in gadolinite and forming compounds resembling those of yttrium. Symbol: Yb, at. wt.: 173.04, at. no.: 70, sp. gr.: 6.96. Cf."rare-earth element."

 

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Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Associated Ions

Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Molecular Geometry

The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.