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All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

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Chemical Bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements or compounds.

Phase Diagram

Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure relationships for different phases of a substance.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Period

The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.

Diamonds Are Forever

Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?