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All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

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How to keep flowers in a vase for long time

The best gift for a woman, as you know, is a beautiful bouquet of flowers. But the cut flowers at home quite quickly wither. But your favorite roses or tulips can keep their freshness if you use our advice. Chemistry and various chemical elements will help us in this difficult matter!

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Secondary Voltaic Cells

Voltaic cells that can be recharged, original reactanats can be regenerated be reversing the direction of the current flow.

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Phosphorus Oxychloride

Colorless to slightly yellow fuming liquid.

Mol. Wt.: 153.39
M.P.: 20C
B.P.: 105.1C
Density: 1.685 @ 15.5C
Vapor Pressure: 40 mm @ 27.3C
Vapor Density: 5.3
Used as the phosphorus source for phosphorus diffusion.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Heat

A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Standard Reaction

A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.