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All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

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Nuclides

Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

Thermodynamics

The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical and chemical processes.

Atom

The smallest particle of an element.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Lewis Base

Any species that can make available a share in an electron pair.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.