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All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

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Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

xanthate

A salt or ester of xanthic acid. Many xanthates have a yellow color. Xanthates are used as flotation agents in mineral processing.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.