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All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

Latest Articles

  • Chemical Safety

    People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Chemistry of the sky

    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...



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Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Dispersing Medium

The solvent-like phase in a colloid.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of substance one degree Celsius.

Two chemistry egg tricks

The French have a saying: "You cannot cook an omelet without breaking eggs."Chemists hearing this proverb totally disagree. There is nothing easier than cleaning an egg without breaking its shell.
Probably our readers have already guessed how to do this, as it’s known that the hard shell of the egg is carbon dioxide, like chalk and marble.