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All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.

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Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

A brief history of dyeing fabrics

 Dyeing fabrics is giving the fibers a homogeneous color that has a certain degree of strength. The methods of dyeing are very diverse, depending on the properties of the dyes and the dyed fibers.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

What are Compound Microscopes?

Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses.

The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is the stage, with the illuminator below that.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.

 

Control Rods

Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore rates of fission.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.