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Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

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Method of Initial Rates

Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.

Catenation

Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or rings.
The bonding together of atoms of the same element to form chains.
The ability of an element to bond to itself.

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Law of Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, it may be changed from one form to another.

Leveling Effect

Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.