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Reactions in which one element displaces another from a compound.

 

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Law of Conservation of Matter

There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Amine Complexes

Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded to metal ions.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Saponification

Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.

Anode

In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode. Electrode at which oxidation occurs.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Periodic Law

The properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Cis-

The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted.

Deuterium

An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as massive as ordinary hydrogen,deuterion atoms contain both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Clay

A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet-like structures that have enormous surface areas that can absorb large amounts of water.