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The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

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van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.