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The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons) around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

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  • Interesting facts about metals

    Metals have been used by people since ancient times. All the time the process of obtaining them was improved, useful alloys of various metals appeared. Let’s look at interesting facts about metals.

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    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...

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    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

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    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...

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    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

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van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Solubility Product Principle

The solubility product constant expression for a slightly soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of the constituent ions, each raised to the power that corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Alkenes (Olefins)

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.


The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

End Point

The point at which an indicator changes colour and a titration is stopped.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Heterogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.