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Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

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Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Single Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons (one pair) between two atoms.

Metalloids

Elements with properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Biodegradability

The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.