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Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

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Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.


A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.


An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.


A device for measuring pressure.


A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m , values in the same orbital.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.


The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.