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Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

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Neutralization

The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with hydrogen ions to form water molecules.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Electrolysis

Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.

Specific Rate Constant

An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant, which is different for different reactions and which changes only with temperature, k in the rate-law expression: Rate = k [A] x [B]v.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Designated area

An area that may be used for work with carcinogens, reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such as a laboratory hood.