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Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

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Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Acetic Acid

CA3COOH, clear, colorless liquid, pungent odor. Boiling point 140C, flash point 54C (closed cup), autoignition temperature 38OC.

Dissociation

In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic compound separates into its ions.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Condensed States

The solid and liquid states.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Creating Malachite egg

One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but effective and visual, and as a result we will get something beautiful.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.