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Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

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Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Native State

Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined or free state in nature.



Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Coordination Sphere

The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any uncoordinated counter-ions.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.