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Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

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Heat of Solution

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).

Salinometer

An instrument for measuring the amount of salt in a solution. Also,"salimeter, salometer."

Atomic Weight

Weighted average of the masses of the constituent isotopes of an element, The relative masses of atoms of different elements.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

London Forces

Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles, also called dispersion Forces.