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Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

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Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Organic Chemistry

The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Accuracy

How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).