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The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

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Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Optical Isomers

Stereoisomers that differ only by being nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right and left hands, also called enantiomers.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Colligative Properties

Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Radical

An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)

Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy

The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.