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The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.

 

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Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.