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Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

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Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Primary Standard

A substance of a known high degree of purity that undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant of interest.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.

Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Metallurgy

Refers to the overall processes by which metals are extracted from ores.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.