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An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

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Accuracy

How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.

Sigma Bonds

Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line connecting the bonded atoms.

Covalent Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Quantum Mechanics

Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small particles) is not infinitely divisible.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.