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The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

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Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Outer Orbital Complex

Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

The most expensive metal in the world

Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Mass Spectrometer

An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of charged particles.

Insulator

Poor electric and heat conductor.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.