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A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

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Two chemistry egg tricks

The French have a saying: "You cannot cook an omelet without breaking eggs."Chemists hearing this proverb totally disagree. There is nothing easier than cleaning an egg without breaking its shell.
Probably our readers have already guessed how to do this, as it’s known that the hard shell of the egg is carbon dioxide, like chalk and marble.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.


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Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.

Water Equivalent

The amount of water that would absorb the same amount of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature increase.

Graham's Law

The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molecular weights or densities.

Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, there is no net change in concentrations of reactants or products while a system is at equilibrium.

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Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a substance.


A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.