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A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

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Evaporization

Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

Acid Anhydride

Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid. General formula is R--C--O--C--R. Chemical compound that reacts with water to form an acid and are usually oxides of nonmetallic elements.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.