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The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

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Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.

 

Dextrorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light clockwise, also called dextro.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.