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The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

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Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.

 

Detergent

A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO3 or a phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Rate-law Expression

Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the constant.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Collision Theory

Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions between reactant molecules must occur in order for the reaction to occur.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Distilland

The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

Galvanizing

Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect the underlying surface from corrosion.

 

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Boron Hydrides

Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.