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Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain minimum energy, current increases with increasing intensity of radiation.

 

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Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

D-Orbitals

Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p orbitals of the same energy level.

 

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Strong Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute aqueous solution.

 

Inhibitory Catalyst

An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Molecular Weight

The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in atomic mass units.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Ionization Constant

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak electrolyte.

Acid

A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize only slightly. Chemicals or substances having the property of an acid are said to be acidic.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

Isomorphous

Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.

Doublet

Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing close together on a spectrogram.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Rate of Reaction

Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.