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A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

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    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

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    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...



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Coulometry

The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual variables measured.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Emulsion

Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid.

Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

Mass Number

The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an atom, an integer.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Alloying

Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other metals) to modify its properties.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.