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Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

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Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Electron Deficient Compounds

Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H) that shares fewer than eight electrons.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Nitrogen Cycle

The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere.

 

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Evaporation Rate

The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.