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Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

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Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.


Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.

xenon tetrafluoride

A colorless, crystalline compound, XeF4, prepared by heating a gaseous mixture of fluorine and xenon.

Radioactive Tracer

A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

Boiling Point

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure, also the condensation point


The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.


Consisting of only one element.

Basic Anhydride

The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.