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Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.

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Photochemical Oxidants

Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of causing damage to plants and animals.

Formula Unit

The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.

Compressed Gas

A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 21.1°C (70°F)

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.