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For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

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Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Fat

Solid triester of glycerol and (mostly) saturated fatty acids.

Lanthanides

Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum).

Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

Alkyl Group

A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal of one hydrogen atom.

Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Polyene

A compound that contains more than one double bond per molecule.

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Heat of Condensation

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

Concentration

Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of solution.

Hybridization

Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.