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For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

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Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Cation

A positive ion, an atom or group of atoms that has lost one or more electrons.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Pairing Energy

Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.

Ion Product for Water

Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw = [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.

Capillary

A tube having a very small inside diameter.

Coordination Compound or Complex

A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.