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For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

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Atmosphere

A unit of pressure, the pressure that will support a column of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

PseudobinaryIonic Compounds

Compounds that contain more than two elements but are named like binary compounds.

Explosive

A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.

Suspension

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their introduction.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Oxidation-reduction Reactions

Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.

Substance

Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same chemical composition and physical properties.