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For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

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Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Formula Weight

The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.

 

Hydrogen Bond

A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

xylidine

Any of six isomeric compounds that have the formula C8H11N, are derivatives of xylene, and resemble aniline: used in dye manufacture.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Lanthanide Contraction

A decrease in the radii of the elements following the lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there were no f-transition metals.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.