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For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

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Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Quantum Numbers

Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms, derived from quantum mechanical treatment.

Combination Reaction

Reaction in which two substances (elements or compounds) combine to form one compound.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Natural Radioactivity

Spontaneous decomposition of an atom.

Limiting Reactant

Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of product(s) that can be formed.