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Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved ions of opposite charges.

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Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation

The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole of a substance in a specified state from its elements in their standard states.

Endothermic

Describes processes that absorb heat energy.

Mechanism

The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted into products.

Strong Field Ligand

Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions when possible.

Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Heterogeneous Mixture

A mixture that does not have uniform composition and properties throughout.

Photon

A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation, also called quantum of light.

 

Ground State

The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.

Calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie = 4.184 joules.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.