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A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

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Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Overlap

The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.

Chemical Periodicity

The variations in properties of elements with their position in the periodic table.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Saccharic acid

A white, needlelike, crystalline, water-soluble solid or syrup, C6H10O8, usually made by the oxidation of cane sugar, glucose, or starch by nitric acid. Also called "Glucaric acid."

Heat Capacity

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.