A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.
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A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.
The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a solution.
An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.
An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)
A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.
The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table.
A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.
Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable bases.
Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.
Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.
Solid triester of glycerol and (mostly) saturated fatty acids.
Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.
Refers to species that have only six electrons in the highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis acids).
Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.
A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.
Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce that acid, similar statement applies to bases. The strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent.
A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high temperature or applied potential.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.
Solution that resists change in pH, contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.