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A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.

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Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

S Orbital

A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital, one per energy level.

xenon trioxide

A colorless, nonvolatile solid, XeO3, explosive when dry: in solution it is called xenic acid.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Hydrogenation

The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Mechanism

The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted into products.

Radioactivity

The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Exothermicity

The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.