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The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

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Melting Point

The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in equilibrium, also the freezing point.

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Chemical Kinetics

The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and of the factors on which they depend.

Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Reverse Osmosis

Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing it.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Partial Pressure

The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases.