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The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Harmful Chemicals Found In Food

    It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...



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Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Accuracy

How closely a measured value agrees with the correct value.

Molality

Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.

Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.