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Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged, no further chemical reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.



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Salicylaldehyde

An oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C7H6O2, having an almondlike odor: used chiefly in perfumery and in the synthesis of coumarin.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Solution

Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Atomic Orbital

Region or volume in space in which the probability of finding electrons is highest.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Nuclear Reactor

A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions generate heat energy on a large scale, which is subsequently converted into electrical energy.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.