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A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.

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Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Cis-Trans Isomerism

A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

Ester

A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Combustible

Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture.

Saccharic

of or derived from saccharin or a saccharine substance.

 

Polymorphous

Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one crystalline arrangement.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.

 

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.