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Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

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Density

Density is the ratio b/w Mass and Volume: D=M/V

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Metal

An element below and to the left of the stepwise division (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table, about 80% of the known elements are metals.

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Amide

Compound containing the O-C-N group.Compound that can be considered a derivative of ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by a alkyl or aryl groups.

 

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Octet Rule

Many representative elements attain at least a share of eight electrons in their valence shells when they form molecular or ionic compounds, there are some limitations.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Dimer

Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical) molecules.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

Nuclides

Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of a single element.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Aldehyde

Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen atom are attached to a carbonyl group, general formula, O-R-C-H

 

Dynamic Equilibrium

An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with no net change. When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so that no net change occurs.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Supercooled Liquids

Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity e.g glass.

Cathodic Protection

Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more easily oxidized metal.

Indicators

For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit different colors in solutions of different acidities, used to determine the point at which reaction between two solutes is complete.