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Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

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  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Chemistry of the sky

    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.



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Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Stereoisomers

Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented in space, consist of geometrical and optical isomers.

 

Temperature

A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or coldness of a sample. or object.

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Reactants

Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.

Dosimeter

A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory personnel and designated to detect and measure incident ionizing radiation or chemical exposure.

Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium

A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal, the state of a system when neither forward or reverse reaction is thermodynamically favored.

Cell Potential

Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions.