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A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are donated by the same atom, a bond between a Lewis base and a Lewis acid.

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Weak Electrolyte

A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.

Nuclear Fission

The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of intermediate masses and one or more protons are emitted.

Positron

A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Endothermicity

The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs.

Chain Termination Step

The combination of two radicals, which removes the reactive species that propagate the change reaction.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)