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Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

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Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Compressed Gas

A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 21.1°C (70°F)

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Tyndall Effect

The scattering of light by colloidal particles.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

Emission Spectrum

Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states.

 

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Ionization Energy

The minimum amount of energy required to remove the most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or ion.

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.