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Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

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  • Gas of rotten eggs

    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.

  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Chemistry of the sky

    Chemistry can teach us about the composition of celestial bodies and determine their age.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...



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Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Dubnium

Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.

Breeder Reactor

A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.

Radioactive Dating

Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life calculations.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Bonding Orbital

A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron.