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Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

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Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Electronic Geometry

The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

Percent Composition

The mass percent of each element in a compound.

Intermolecular Forces

Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules, ions) of a substance.

Hydrophilic Colloids

Colloidal particles that repel water molecules.

Hydration Energy

The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Vapor

A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.