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Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a species are present at unit activity, 1.0M solutions of dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure solids and liquids.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Creating Malachite egg

    One of the most interesting and obvious chemical experiments is the experiment on the interaction of copper sulfate and calcium carbonate. The latter is contained in the shell of a simple egg, but copper sulphate should be searched in a chemical reagent store. This experience is simple, but...



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Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Free Radical

A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.

20 interesting chemistry facts

20 interesting chemistry facts.

Nonelectrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

Hydrate Isomers

Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere.

Eutrophication

The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water.

Optical Activity

The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of optical isomers.

 

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Hund's Rule

All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins.