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Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

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Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Binary Acid

A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Carbanion

An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon atom.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Heat of Crystallization

The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.