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Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

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Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Element

A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means.

Free Energy Change

The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.

Le Chatelier's Principle

States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any stress placed upon it.
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces stress.

Inert s-pair Effect

Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.

Dissociation Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species (ligands).

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Periodic Table of Elements

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.

Voltaic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity, also called galvanic cells.

 

Conduction Band

A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels just higher in energy than a filled band, a band within which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow electrical conduction to occur in a solid.