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The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially useful for health and fire-hazard considerations.

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Homogeneous Mixture

A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Osmosis

The process by which solvent molecules pass through a semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated solution.

 

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Alpha (a) Particle

Helium ion with 2+ charge, an assembly of two protons and two neutrons.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Condensed Phases

The liquid and solid phases, phases in which particles interact strongly.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Phenol

Hydrocarbon derivative containing an [OH] group bound to an aromatic raing.

 

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.