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A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems.

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Deposition

The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling, the reverse of sublimation.

Nernst Equation

Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard conditions.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Bond Order

Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals. Bond order gives an indication to the stability of a bond. Also defined as the difference between the number of bonding electrons and antibonding electrons divided by two.

Addition Reaction

A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or triple bond. Types of addition reaction include electrophilic, nucleophilic (polar) and free radical addition (non-polar).

Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of reacting gases (and any gaseous products) can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.