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A sample of matter composed of two or more substances, each of which retains its identity and properties.

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  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Ozone

    We breathe 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, consuming about 25 kg of air every day. It turns out that we practically predetermine our health by the air we breathe.

  • What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Why do copper products change color, and what is the name of the process?

    Probably, every person wants to know, why over time the copper turns green and becomes bloomed. This is easy to explain: that film is called patina.

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...



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Isomers

Different substances that have the same formula.

Electronegativity

A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself when chemically combined with another atom.

History of fireworks

There is an assumption that the history of fireworks started in China, about 2000 years ago. It is possible that the Chinese accidentally discovered explosions by burning bamboo canes.

Silicones

Polymeric organosilicon compounds, contain individual or cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups.

Barometer

A device for measuring pressure.

Charle's Law

At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

Ostwald Process

A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.

Dipole

Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently bonded atoms.

Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.