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A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or gas) as the reactants. The process is called Homogeneous Catalysis.

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Supercritical Fluid

A substance at temperature above its critical temperature.

Absorption Spectrum

Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from transitions from lower to higher energy states. An absorption spectrum is the inverse of an emission spectrum.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Heat of Fusion

The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.

Entropy

A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

Domain

A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of which align in the same direction in the presence of an external magnetic field.

Crystal Lattice Energy

Amount of energy that holds a crystal together, the energy change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous state.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.

 

Ternary Compound

A compound consisting of three elements, may be ionic or covalent.