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The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

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Insoluble Compound

A very slightly soluble compound.

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms.

Alkaline Earth Metals

Group IIA metals

Kinetic-molecular Theory

A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic observations on gases in microscopic or molecular terms.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Electrical Conductivity

Ability to conduct electricity.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.