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The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of water.

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Ionization Isomers

Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and outside the coordination sphere.


A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.

Antibonding Orbital

A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived, lends instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons, denoted with a star (*) superscript or symbol.

Faraday's Law of Electrolysis

One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of charge through an electrolytic cell.


Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.


A salt or ester of salicylic acid.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

xanthene dye

Any of a group of dyes having a molecular structure related to that of xanthene in which the aromatic (C6H4) groups are the chromophore.


Coordination Compound or Complex

A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds.

Equation of State

An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a given state, the van der Waals equation describes the behavior of the gaseous state.