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The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

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    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.



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Coordination Number

In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours of an atom or ion. The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.

Critical Pressure

The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical temperature.

Electron

A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu and a charge of 1-.

Particulate Matter

Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

Joule

A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.

Geiger counter

A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when ionizing radiation passes through it.

Anion

A negative ion, an atom or goup of atoms that has gained one or more electrons.

 

Homonuclear

Consisting of only one element.