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The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • What are Compound Microscopes?

    Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • The most expensive metal in the world

    Do you think the most expensive metal is gold? No! On earth there are more valuable metals. But we need to divide the value of metals that occur in nature, and metals - isotopes, which are obtained in special laboratories. Let’s look at natural metals first.



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Polymer

A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and boiling points.

Distillate

The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in the receiver.

 

Molecular Orbital Theory

A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated existence of molecular orbitals.

ytterbia

Ytterbia is a colorless compound, Yb2O3, used in certain alloys and ceramics. Also known as ytterbium oxide.

Substitution Reaction

A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms.

Gem-dimethyl group

Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom.

Vapor Pressure

The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Semiconductor

A substance that does not conduct electricity at low temperatures but does so at higher temperatures.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.