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The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.

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Basic Salt

A salt containing an ionizable OH group.

Zone Refining

A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through an induction heater, this causes impurties to move along a melted portion. This method applies the fact when a metal crystallizes on cooling, impurities are automatically expelled as they do not form part of the crystal.

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Isotopes

Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with different masses, atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Amorphous Solid

A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered structure.

Enthalpy

The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.

Downs Cell

Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten sodium chloride. For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells.

Nuclide Symbol

Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Periodic Table

An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers that also emphasizes periodicity.