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A binary compound of oxygen.

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Derivative

A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent compound by replacement of one atom with another atom or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry to assist in identifying compounds.

Precipitate

An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.

Molecule

The smallest particle of an element or compound capable of a stable, independent existence.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Crystal Field Theory

Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges, a purely ionic model, ligand point charges represent the crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals containing nonbonding electrons.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Fatty Acids

An aliphatic acid, many can obtained from animal fats.

Exothermic

Describes processes that release heat energy.

Background Radiation

Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.

Daughter Nuclide

Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay.

 

Adsorption

Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles.

Oxide

A binary compound of oxygen.

Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Emulsifying Agent

A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles, an emulsifier.

Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition)

The law stating that a pure substance will always have the same percent by weight. Different samples of a pure compound always contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

Half-Cell

Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.

Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.

Polymerization

The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.