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A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

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Atomic Radius

Radius of an atom.

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Heterogeneous Catalyst

A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Chain Reaction

A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as radicals, are produced in more than one step. These reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction.

 

Monoprotic Acid

Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Dipole-dipole Interactions

Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is, between molecules with permanent dipoles.

Bonding Pair

Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.