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A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge.

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Beta Particle

Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.

Sublimation

The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without passing through the liquid state.

Alkynes

Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds.

Foam

Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.

Effective Nuclear Charge

The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost electrons of an atom, the actual nuclear charge minus the effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals, those d orbitals within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-axes.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Diagonal Similarities

Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to the right, especially evident toward the left of the periodic table.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.