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An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

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Polyprotic Acid

An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per molecule, often a least one step of ionization is weak.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Actual Yield

Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield.

Electrodes

Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-reactions, occur in electrochemical cells.

Avogadro's Law

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Pauli Exclusion Principle

No two electrons in the same atom may have identical sets of four quantum numbers.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.