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An algebraic increase in the oxidation number, may correspond to a loss of electrons.

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Critical Temperature

The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied, the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit distinct gas and liquid phases.

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

yttrium

A rare trivalent metallic element, found in gadolinite and other minerals. Symbol: Y, at. wt.: 88.905, at. no.: 39, sp. gr.: 4.47. Cf."rare-earth element."

Yttrium has a silver-metallic luster and is relatively stable in air unless finely divided. Turnings of the metal, however, ignite in air if their temperature exceeds 400oC. Yttrium oxide is one of the most important compounds of yttrium and accounts for the largest use. It is widely used in making YVO4 europium, and Y2O3 europium phosphors to give the red color in color television tubes.

Molecular Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are written as if all substances existed as molecules, only complete formulas are used.

Mass

A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is usually measured in grams or kilograms.

Sigma Orbital

Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two atomic orbitals.

Reversible Reaction

Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both the forward and reverse direction.

Lewis Acid

Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair.

Ore

A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.