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A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

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Homogeneous Equilibria

Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.

Donor Atom

A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis acid.

Enantiomer

One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active molecule.

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

Mass Deficiency

The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

Solute

The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution.

Distillation

The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on the basis of differences in boiling points. The process in which components of a mixture are separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.