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A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.

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Ionization

In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular compound reacts with water and forms ions.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Metallic Bonding

Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Electrode Potentials

Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Essential Oil

A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour.

Heterocyclic Amine

Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Greenhouse Effect

Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere.