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Energy that is propagated by means of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to the direction of travel of the energy.

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Standard Molar Volume

The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under standard conditions, 22.4liters.

Hydrogen

Discovered : by Henry Cavendish in 1766.
Isolated in London, UK.
Origin : The name is derived from the Greek ‘hydro genes’, meaning water forming.
Description :A colourless, odourless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidised. Hydrogen-powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy.

Electrophile

Positively charged or electron-deficient.

Colloid

A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do not settle out.

Ferromagnetism

The ability of a substance to become permanently magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.

Surface Tension

It is the force in dynes acting along the surface of the liquid 1cm in length and perpendicular to it.

yttria

Y2O3: A white, water-insoluble powder, Y2O3, used chiefly in incandescent gas and acetylene mantles.

Thermonuclear Energy

The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of light.

Gangue

Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral of interest in an ore.

Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.