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Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is converted to a neutron.

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Excited State

Any state other than the ground state of an atom or molecule.

Degenerate

Of the same energy.

Nonbonding Orbital

A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom, lends neither stability nor instability to a molecule or ion when populated with electrons.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.

Valence Electrons

Outermost electrons of atoms, usually those involved in bonding.

Hard Water

Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.

Capillary Action

The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive forces exceed the adhesive forces.

Ketone

Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.

Extensive Property

A property that depends upon the amount of material in a sample.

Safranine

Also called "phenosafranine". A purplish-red, water-soluble dye, C18H14N4, used for textiles and as a stain in microscopy.

Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Raoult's Law

The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution decreases as its mole fraction decreases.

Line Spectrum

An atomic emission or absorption spectrum.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

Amino Acid

Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid group.The --NH2 group.

Tetrahedral

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in center and four atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron.

Theoretical Yield

Maximum amount of a specified product that could be obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming complete consumption of limiting reactant according to only one reaction and complete recovery of product.

Spectrochemical Series

Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.