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Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.

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Allotropes

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Fuel Cells

Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Isoelectric

Having the same electronic configurations.

Critical Point

The combination of critical temperature and critical pressure of a substance.

Formal Charge

A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion, counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.

Delocalization

Of electrons, refers to bonding electrons that are distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded together, occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend over more than two atoms, important in species that valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Extrapolate

To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values. Technique used in standard additions calibration procedure.

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs in a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.