The heat content of a specific amount of substance, defined as E= PV.
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Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
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Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...
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Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?
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People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
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The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.
Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with atomic number (and position in the periodic table).
A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be extracted.
Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
The total amount of matter and energy available in the universe is fixed.
Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.
Valence Bond Theory
Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.
Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.
A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute aqueous solution.
Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.
Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point.
The combination of many small molecules to form large molecules.
The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s). The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.
The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.
The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom, molecule or ion.
An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.
Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom.
The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
The very small, very dense, positively charged center of an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other subatomic particles.
A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at their standard state.