A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.
- Harmful Chemicals Found In Food
It's getting close to New Years and many people are starting to think about how to lose those extra pounds they managed to gain over the holidays. There are many sorts of diets and fads that have developed over the years from cutting carbs to cutting protein. Everyone has their own opinion as to...
- Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...
- What are Compound Microscopes?
Most of the microscopes used today are compound. A compound microscope features two or more lenses. A hollow cylinder called the tube connects the two lenses. The top lens, the one people look through, is called the eyepiece. The bottom lens is known as the objective lens. Below the two lenses is...
- Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis
In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.
- Chemical Safety
People use chemicals every day for a wide array of purposes, which can include work and house hold duties. Many of us fail to realize that we are actually handling potentially deadly chemicals when we simply clean the bathroom or wash the car. This brings to mind the reason why chemical safety is...
A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for example, in the body) or whose decomposition products are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity, also called a radioactive label.
A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy, usually added to lower a melting point.
Inert s-pair Effect
Characteristic of the post-transition minerals, tendency of the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un shared in compounds.
The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.
Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air.
Third Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.
A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2 which is also 0.2390 calorie.
Heat of Solution
The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute, the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).
Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the number but not the kind of solute particles present.
Valence Bond Theory
Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are shared.
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature with that of an inert reference material under similar conditions.
Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule, may be strong or weak. Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per formula unit.
Outer Orbital Complex
Valence bond designation for a complex in which the metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied) shell in hybridization.
Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur, also called redox reactions.
Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.
Method of Initial Rates
Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying out a reaction with different initial concentrations and analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.
Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that belong to the crystal as a whole.
Compounds with different arrangements of groups on either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a double bond or a single bond in a ring, for example cis-trans isomers of certain alkenes. Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other, also known as position isomers.
A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or gas) from the reactants, a contact catalyst.
A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.