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A thermodynamic state or property that measures the degree of disorder or randomness of a system.

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Resonance

The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or ion.

Semipermable Membrane

A thin partition between two solutions through which certain molecules can pass but others cannot.

Denaturation

A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide chains.

Energy

The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

Electroplating

Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.

Hydration

Reaction of a substance with water.

Electronic Transition

The transfer of an electron from one energy level to another.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Nitrogenases

A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 molecules from the air are converted to ammonia.

 

Saccharide

An organic compound containing a sugar or sugars.