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The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

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    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

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    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

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    Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry. As these quality standards become...

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    If you happen to break a rotten egg, then you know the smell of hydrogen sulfide, because the stench of the spoiled egg depends on of its presence in rotting protein substances.



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Ioniztion

The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.

Cloud Chamber

A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks.

Secondary Standard

A solution that has been titrated against a primary standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard.

 

Gel

Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid, a semirigid solid.

Born-Haber Cycle

A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)

Standard Electrode Potential

By convention, potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode when all species are present at unit activity.

 

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Spectator Ions

Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical reaction.

Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.