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The capacity to do work or transfer heat.

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  • Features of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) invented by Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig in the 1980s still manages to do a great job today and competes with more advanced microscope types. The scanning tunneling microscope is used for studying the surface atoms that are found on various materials. The...

  • Use of diamonds

    Diamond is a crystalline modification of pure carbon formed in the deep interior of the Earth, in the upper mantle at depths of more than 80-100 kilometers, at exceptionally high pressure and temperature. It is the most precious stone, the hardest and most wear-resistant mineral, the most...

  • Diamonds Are Forever

    Diamonds are still a girl's best friend, right? We love the shiny gems. They are the most popular rocks sold today. But what exactly are they, anyway? Where do they come from? What else are they used for?

  • Protein Design: Automated protein discovery and synthesis

    In this paper I describe (theoretically) the method(s) of automated protein discovery and synthesis.

  • Varieties of garnet minerals

    The most famous type of garnet stone is pyrope (flaming). This is the "oldest of garnets", with a dense red color, similar to the grain of an edible garnet. Pyrope has a variety called rhodolite - a stone of dense pink or pink-purple color, which sometimes has the alexandrite effect and is used in...



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Second Law of Thermodynamics

The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in spontaneous processes.

Liquid Aerosol

Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.

Copper

Discovered : known to ancient civilisations
Origin : The name is derived from 'Cuprum', the Latin name for Cyprus.

van der Waals' Equation

An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real gases by inclusion of two empirically determined parameters, which are different for different gases.

Amine

Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic groups.

Electrolyte

A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.

 

Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)

Different forms of the same element in the same physical state.

Metallic Conduction

Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a metallic surface.

Alpha Particles

A helium nucleus.

Dilution

Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.