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A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles between like ligands.

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Third Law of Thermodynamics

The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.

Ionic Bonding

Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to another.

Absolute Entropy (of a substance)

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its entropy is zero) to the temperature in question.

Entropy is a measure of the “dilution” of thermal energy.

Nuclear Reaction

Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy.

Spectrum

Display of component wavelengths (colours) of electromagnetic radiation.

Polarimeter

A device used to measure optical activity.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

Fractional Distillation

The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.

Crystal Lattice

A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal.

Polarization

The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an electrode, preventing further reaction.