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The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its parent liquid.

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Freezing Point Depression

The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.ing Point

Electron Configuration

Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of atoms or ions.

Shielding Effect

Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus, also called screening effect.

Atomic Number


Integral number of protons in the nucleus, defines the identity of element.
 

Proton

A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.

Equivalence Point

The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of reactants have reacted.

Hydrometer

A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.

Complex Ions

Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.

Oxidizing Agent

The substance that oxidizes another substance and is reduced.

How to make crystal glass

From history we know that the idea of creating crystal belongs to the British: they were the first to add lead oxides to the charge material, and as a result got glass with unusual “voice”, transparency and sparkling faces. Classical crystal contains 24% of lead oxide, but there are products with a higher content of up to 30%.