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A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.

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Atomic Mass Unit (amu)

One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope, a unit used for stating atomic and formula weights, also called dalton.

Hess' Law of Heat Summation

The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Reaction Stoichiometry

Description of the quantitative relationships among substances as they participate in chemical reactions.


The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.

Frasch Process

Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted. Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a slurry.


Photochemical Smog

A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large amounts of sunlight, caused by photochemical (light-induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other components of polluted air that produce photochemical oxidants.


Bomb Calorimeter

A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.

Double Bond

Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons (two pairs) between two atoms.

Gamma Ray

High energy electromagnetic radiation. A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x-ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate from outer space.