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A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

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Boyle's Law

At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.

Absolute Zero

The zero point on the absolute temperature scale, -273.15°C or 0 K, theoretically, the temperature at which molecular motion ceases. The concept of an absolute zero temperature was first deduced from experiments with gases. When a fixed volume of gas is cooled, its pressure decreases with its temperature. Absolute zero physically possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy.

Carbonium ion

An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon atom.

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.

Band Theory of Metals

Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.


The solid form of mixed uranium oxide, which is produced from uranium ore in the uranium recovery (milling) process.

Coordination Isomers

Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex cation and complex anion of the same compound.

Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law)

The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.


Discovered : at both Berkeley, California, USA, and Dubna, near Moscow, Russia in 1970. Description:A highly radioactive metal which does not occur naturally, and of which only a few atoms have ever been made. It is of research interest only. Origin:The element is named after the Russian town of Dubna.