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A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

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Crystal Field Stabilization Energy

A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex formation.


The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be distilled.


High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear decay processes.

Percentage Ionization

The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a solution of given concentration.

Square Planar

A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the corners of a square.

Nonpolar Bond

Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically distributed.

Total Ionic Equation

Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in contact with water.

Structural Isomers

Compounds that contain the same number of the same kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.