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A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either aliphatic or aromatic.

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Forbidden Zone

A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.

Hydrolysis

The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.

Meniscus

The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a cylindrical container.

Aryl Group

Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is removed from the aromatic system.

Functional Group

A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.

Fluids

Substances that flow freely, gases and liquids.

Miscibility

The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another liquid.

Solubility Product Constant

Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissolution of a slightly soluble compound.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy) energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions and physical changes.

Dipole Moment

The product of the distance separating opposite charges of equal magnitude of the charge, a measure of the polarity of a bond or molecule, a measured dipole moment refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule.