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The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.

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Rate-determining Step

The slowest step in a mechanism, the step that determines the overall rate of reaction.

What's In Your Beverage? How to Ensure Quality Control with CO2 Analytical Support

Calibration standards, performance audits, and the FDA's never-ending safety, labeling, and inspection requirements are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to dealing with the increasingly stringent quality control standards of the beverage industry.

As these quality standards become stricter, beverage producers are increasingly called upon to get products to market faster using fewer resources, while simultaneously managing ingredient quality, and ultimately, risk.

Half-Reaction

Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.

Common Ion Effect

Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.

Spectrochemical Series

Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field strength.

Homologous Series

A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

xylan

The pentosan occurring in woody tissue that hydrolyzes to xylose: used as a source of furfural.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Boiling Point Elevation

The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.