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The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

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Reaction Quotient

The mass action expression under any set of conditions (not necessarily equlibrium), its magnitude relative to K determines the direction in which the reaction must occur to establish equilibrium.

Active Metal

Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons readily to form cations.

Central Atom

An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to more than one other atom.

Standard Entropy

The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state at 298 K.

Wild patina, is it so bad?

Usually this kind of patina appears on monuments. The most striking example is the Statue of Liberty in New York.

Solvolysis

The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved.

Nuclear Binding Energy

Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency, energy released in the formation of an atom from the subatomic particles.

 

Equilibrium Constant

A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for a reversible reaction, its magnitude is equal to the mass action expression at equilibrium. K varies with temperature.

Critical Mass

The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy

The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.