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The amount of matter that would be converted into energy if an atom were formed from constituent particles.

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Ligand

A Lewis base in a coordination compound.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).

Disproportionation Reactions

Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent are the same species.

Canal Ray

Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes, observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.

Phosphoric Acid

H3P04, Colorless liquid or rhombic crystals, decomposes before it will boil. Used mostly in the metal etchant. Used in cleaning operations to remove encrusted surface matter and mineral scale found on metal equipment such as boilers and steam producing equipment. Also used to brighten metals and remove rust.

Levorotatory

Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise, also called levo.

Nucleons

Particles comprising the nucleus, protons and neutrons.

Crystalline Solid

A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of particles.

Electromotive Series

The relative order of tendencies for elements and their simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents, also called the activity series.

Hydrolysis Constant

An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.