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A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the corners of a octahedron.

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Supersaturated Solution

A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute, slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.


The unit used to express dipole moments.

Oxidation Numbers

Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in writing formulas and balancing equations, for single- atom ions they correspond to the charge on the ion, more electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation numbers (also called Oxidation states).


The release of heat by a system as a process occurs.

Alkali Metals

Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb).

Acyl Group

Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the --OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl, general formula is O R--C--X.

Mass Action Expression

For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of the concentrations of the products (species on the right), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left), each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the mass action expression is equal to K, at other times it is Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K.

Molecular Orbital

An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule as a whole.

Avogadro's Number

The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance.

Electrolytic Cells

Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes nospontaneous redox reactions to occur. An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are forced to occur by the application of an outside source of electrical energy.